Thursday, August 10, 2006 

The Onion's AV Club List 5

Hmm, not agreeing with no.12, though.


Inventory: 15 True Comeback Albums

Reviewed by Noel Murray, Keith Phipps
July 12th, 2006

1. Frank Sinatra, Songs For Young Lovers (1955)

Frank Sinatra

A bobbysoxer idol, Frank Sinatra became a '40s icon, riding high on the adoration of young fans. Then the fans moved on. Sinatra worked steadily and unhappily through his down period, watching as his film work dried up, his radio shows fizzled, and Columbia music director Mitch Miller failed to get what made him Sinatra. Then Sinatra found his second act, appearing in From Here To Eternity, switching to Capitol, and hooking up with simpatico arranger Nelson Riddle to realize his musical ambitions. Everything that made Sinatra's second-phase career so remarkable is evident on the mini-album Songs For Young Lovers, which follows through on the title's theme, discards Sinatra-the-exuberant-kid, and reinvents him as Sinatra-the-unrivaled-song-interpreter: often sad, occasionally kicked-around, easily amused, and just a little distant.

2. Judy Garland, Judy At Carnegie Hall (1961)

Judy Garland

Judy Garland spent the '50s doing European concert tours and reinventing herself as a sophisticated recording artist in the Frank Sinatra mold, but by the end of the decade, bouts of exhaustion and a case of hepatitis threatened to end her career. Then, on April 23, 1961, Garland put on a show at Carnegie Hall, covering the American songbook and her own MGM movie hits, and her depths of energy and passion stunned even her most devout fans. The double-album document Judy At Carnegie Hall won five Grammys, stayed on the charts for two years, and inspired a thousand drag acts.

3. Sonny Rollins, The Bridge (1962)

Sonny Rollins

From a professional perspective, Sonny Rollins had no reason to pull the plug on his career in 1957. The prolific artist helped define the sound of '50s jazz—and what the words "post" and "hard" meant when they appeared in front of the word "bop." In 1956, he issued an album called Saxophone Colossus, and the name deservedly stuck. Nonetheless, Rollins walked away from it all, citing dissatisfaction with his craft. He didn't stop playing, however; he spent his nights developing his sound on the Williamsburg Bridge. His comeback: The Bridge, a loose, inventive album that sounds like the work of someone who had rediscovered the joy of simply playing.

4. Elvis Presley, From Elvis In Memphis (1969)

Elvis Presley

The king of rock 'n' roll mostly missed out on rock's most fruitful era, stuck as he was in campy movies while his disciples in the UK and San Francisco were turning pop into art. In 1968, an NBC television special reminded people what a force Presley could be when he stuck to his classic hits and stripped away the chintz. He followed up the special with arguably the best album of his career, From Elvis In Memphis, a set of gritty rock songs, contemporary R&B, and soft country-pop like "Gentle On My Mind" and "Any Day Now." The record also featured one of his biggest hits, "In The Ghetto," a swing at social relevance that, for the first time in a long time in his career, was tuned in to its time.

5. John Lennon & Yoko Ono, Double Fantasy (1980)

John Lennon Yoko Ono

After publicly burning out during a "lost weekend" away from Yoko Ono, Lennon reunited with his estranged wife, a reunion that led to Sean Lennon and a long stint as a self-described house-husband. That ended with the recording of Double Fantasy, a Lennon/Ono concept album in which the duo alternate singing about their lives together—and apart. The Ono tracks can politely be described as uncompromising, and the production wraps Lennon's contributions in an unflattering soft-rock veneer, but songs like "(Just Like) Starting Over," "Watching The Wheels," and "I'm Losing You" confirm that Lennon had rediscovered his voice. Sadly, his murder three weeks after Double Fantasy's release transformed the album into a bittersweet epilogue.

6. John Fogerty, Centerfield (1985)

John Fogerty

John Fogerty spent years bickering with his former label over whether he had the right to perform his old Creedence Clearwater Revival songs—or even new songs that sounded like CCR—and by the mid-'80s, the swamp-rock stalwart got sick of worrying about how to disguise his style, and just let rip with a set of classic, Fogerty-styled Americana. Only about half of Centerfield is all that good, but it's telling that pretty much every one of those good songs—the title track, "Big Train (From Memphis)," "Rock And Roll Girls," and "The Old Man Down The Road"—still get played on oldies radio, right alongside the Creedence hits. And while Fogerty was sued over the similarities between "Old Man" and his own "Run Through The Jungle," he prevailed in court, and officially got his voice back.

7. Neil Young, Freedom (1989)

Neil Young

A contingent of weirdo Neil Young fans will argue that he did some of his best work in the '80s, when he flitted from style to style and generally tried his best not to sound like Neil Young. But sometimes the conventional wisdom is conventional for a reason, and the chorus of relieved hosannas that greeted Young's Freedom in the rock press at the turn of the decade still resonates today. The record's signature song is the Bush-baiting "Rockin' In The Free World"—presented in acoustic and electric versions, just like "Hey Hey My My" on Rust Never Sleeps—but its more enduring tracks are the fragile acoustic ballads "Hangin' On A Limb," "The Ways Of Love," and "Wrecking Ball," all of which sound exactly like Neil Young.

8. The B-52's, Cosmic Thing (1989)

B 52s

After becoming favorites to downtown types and in-the-know record buyers with a self-titled 1979 debut and the 1980 follow-up Wild Planet, The B-52's entered a creative and commercial slump through most of the '80s. Even worse, guitarist Ricky Wilson died of AIDS, a devastating loss for any band, and one that left singer Cindy Wilson without a brother and The B-52's without its signature surf-meets-sci-fi guitar sound. Rallying after some down time, the band resurfaced on the Earth Girls Are Easy Soundtrack in the summer of 1988, then owned the summer of '89 with the terrific comeback album Cosmic Thing and the hit single "Love Shack." As overplayed as "Love Shack" has become—does anyone still want to hear it?—the album holds up well, lending mature shades to the group's transcendence-through-trash-culture vibe. The only full-length follow-up to date—the Cindy Wilson-free 1992 album Good Stuff—failed to move the band forward creatively or commercially today, although it continues to enjoy success as a summer touring act.

9. Lou Reed, New York (1989)

Lou Reed

It seems 1989 was a good year for comebacks: In addition to The B-52's, ever-cresting, ever-troughing Lou Reed crawled out of a mid-'80s slump to deliver a contemporaneous snapshot of his hometown. Reed discovers a city in which the gulf between rich and poor has never been deeper, he morns friends lost to AIDS, he considers fatherhood, and he contemplates the nature of Christ against a spare, fuck-the-glossy-'80s sound that emphasizes his strengths as a storyteller.

10. Johnny Cash, American Recordings (1994)

Johnny Cash

Of course, Reed wasn't the only performer who had trouble in the '80s. Virtually everyone more comfortable with a guitar than a drum machine had a rough time of it. And veteran country singers had it even worse than rock stars, after a new class of fresh-faced pop-striving stars virtually exiled them from country radio. Guided by Rick Rubin, Johnny Cash bucked the trend and simply sang. Discarding production frills, American Recordings lets Cash work through 13 tracks of originals, old favorites, and some truly odd covers (Danzig?) that sound like they were written for him. It set the pattern for his artistically triumphant final decade as a recording artist.

11. Steely Dan, Two Against Nature (2000)

Steely Dan

Consummate studio rats, Donald Fagen and Walter Becker made a semi-shocking return to the road in the '90s before releasing Two Against Nature after a 20-year Steely Dan gap. They'd finally aged into the disaffected middle-agedom they'd long affected, and it sounded as if mere months had passed. The duo took Album Of The Year honors at the Grammys and released the even-better Everything Must Go in 2003.

12. U2, All That You Can't Leave Behind (2000)


It may seem that U2 only put fans through a one-album dip—1997's lumbering Pop—but some devotees of '80s U2 felt distanced from the band throughout the '90s, while Bono and company dabbled in electronics and irony. All That You Can't Leave Behind didn't generate much pre-release excitement until "Beautiful Day" started popping up on the radio, with its retro sincerity and soaring chorus. The album fulfilled the single's promise, restoring The Edge's trademark needle-threading guitar to the center of songs that spoke of pain and redemption, instead of postmodernism.

13. Electric Light Orchestra, Zoom (2001)

Electric Light Orchestra

The recent revival of interest in Electric Light Orchestra came a few years too late to save Zoom, Jeff Lynne's barely heard attempt to revive the classic ELO sound. Beginning with the revved-up "Alright"—a "Don't Bring Me Down" for the '00s—Zoom brought back all the rockabilly twang and disco sparkle of the late '70s, and with songs like "State Of Mind" and "Stranger On A Quiet Street," Lynne produced a couple of gems worthy of inclusion on any ELO mix. The album made little impact commercially, but it was part of an early-'00s wave of albums by exiled-from-radio classic rockers (most notably Fleetwood Mac) who abandoned contemporary relevance and returned gleefully to the style that made them stars.

14. Mission Of Burma, OnOffOn (2004)

Mission Of Burma

Plenty of modern rock legends have regrouped after a long layoff to play for the young fans who missed them the first time, but Mission Of Burma is one of the few that returned even stronger than it was in round one. OnOffOn featured scorching new recordings of songs that had popped up in demo form on Burma rarities collections, but the fresher songs were just as good, and surprisingly loud, given that the reason the band broke up in the first place was because of Roger Miller's chronic tinnitus. Mission Of Burma repeated the trick this year with The Obliterati, another excellent album of beautifully noisy art-rock, as bracing now as it would've been 20 years ago.

15. Loretta Lynn, Van Lear Rose (2004)

Loretta Lynn Following the Johnny Cash/Rick Rubin model, Jack White shepherded a long-overdue comeback for Loretta Lynn in 2004. Country purists might argue with some of White's musical choices, but the heartfelt sentiments and unmistakable personality are pure Lynn. As with the best comebacks, it's an album that sounds like she'd wanted to make for years, and she didn't miss the opportunity to make it right


The Onion's AV Club List 4

Inventory: 11 Films That Responded Well To National Crises

Reviewed by Keith Phipps, Nathan Rabin, Scott Tobias
August 9th, 2006

1. My Man Godfrey (1936)

My Man Goldfrey

No one's going to mistake this consummate screwball comedy for a protest film, but it makes no bones about putting class differences on the front burner right from the credits, which pan from the bright lights of an Art Deco Manhattan skyline to the city dump, home to its titular protagonist William Powell and other victims of the Depression. There, Powell first meets Carole Lombard, part of a high-spirited scavenger hunt whose items include a "forgotten man." Powell pushes Lombard's sister into a pile of ashes, then plays along long enough to call the high-society types "nitwits" for treating the poor like objects. Then the hilarious twists and turns kick in, but the film never loses sight of the fact that since 1929, the distance between Park Avenue and the dump has shrunk considerably.

2. The Best Years Of Our Lives (1946)

After World War II ended, many veterans were reticent about the horrors they'd witnessed. Some had been irrevocably changed physically or mentally by their experience; others had a difficult time getting back into the fold. By even broaching the subject, William Wyler's Oscar-winning The Best Years Of Our Lives was an act of courage, but more than that, it was a cathartic expression of feelings that had simmered under the surface of American life. In its story of three servicemen returning to small-town Boone City after the war—one having lost his hands, the others struggling to adjust to their jobs and changed families—Wyler's moving drama acknowledges that the process of coming home doesn't end with the ticker-tape parade.

3. Medium Cool (1969)

Few narrative films have the fortune, good or bad, to wind up in the middle of history, but it couldn't have taken cinematographer-turned-first-time-feature-director Haskell Wexler by surprise. He decided to shoot Medium Cool in Chicago in 1968 in part because of predictions that the protests and uprisings sweeping the world would hit the Democratic Convention that summer. The convention violence serves as the climax of a film that documents the volatile social climate of the day—racial unrest, social inequality, and a free-floating fed-up feeling—while critiquing the very process of capturing reality on film. The good vibes have given way to anger and discontent, and there's no solid ground on which to stand. It's 1968 boiled down to two hours.

4. Hearts And Minds (1974)

Hearts And Minds

Decades before Fahrenheit 9/11 and An Inconvenient Truth, Peter Davis' controversial Vietnam essay Hearts And Minds proved that it was possible for a documentary to go from reporting news to becoming news. Davis' wide-ranging film explores the roots of American imperialism in Vietnam and the consequences for Americans and the Vietnamese alike, sketching a line between the excesses of the military-industrial complex and the winner-takes-all hyper-aggression of high-school football. Also like Fahrenheit and Truth, Hearts And Minds became a flashpoint in a culture war. After co-producer Bert Schneider read a "Greetings of friendship to all American people" from the North Vietnamese government during his acceptance speech for the film's Best Feature Documentary Oscar, his actions were denounced by Frank Sinatra, Bob Hope, John Wayne, and other members of Hollywood's old guard.

5. The Manchurian Candidate (1962)

The Manchurian Candidate

Though a decade removed from the McCarthy folly, America was still entrenched firmly enough in the Red Scare that John Frankenheimer's political thriller The Manchurian Candidate caused a major stir. The story concerns a Medal Of Honor winner who's captured and brainwashed during the Korean War. He returns home as a "sleeper agent," triggered into action through hypnotic suggestion and manipulated into assassinating a senatorial candidate who's running against a McCarthy-esque figure. The film's politics are a matter of some debate—though any reading that pegs it as anything other than a critique of McCarthyism faces an uphill battle—but it had the courage to ask previously taboo questions. Jonathan Demme's underrated 2004 remake cleverly updated the premise for the times by substituting corporations for Communism, speculating about who's really in control in the 21st century.

6. Dr. Strangelove, Or: How I Learned To Stop Worrying And Love The Bomb (1964)

Based on Peter George's novel Red Alert, Stanley Kubrick's devastating Cold War satire was initially intended to be a deadly serious cautionary tale about two nations on the brink of nuclear disaster. (Presumably, that movie would have looked a lot like Fail Safe, which was released by the same studio eight months later.) However, a short ways into the writing process, Kubrick and his collaborators started to see the bleak irony in concepts like Mutually Assured Destruction, an idea that the United States and the Soviet Union would never engage in nuclear warfare because both sides would be demolished. In the film, the arms race comes to its natural end with something called the "doomsday machine," a Soviet device that automatically retaliates a nuclear attack by basically destroying every living thing on the planet. The film reaches absurd heights in the War Room, when lunatics like George C. Scott's boorish general start throwing out sunny-day scenarios like one that would only leave 10 to 20 million Americans dead: "Now, I'm not saying we wouldn't get our hair mussed."

7. Gimme Shelter (1970)

Gimme Shelter

The flip side to Woodstock, 1970's Gimme Shelter revealed the hangover that followed the hippie bacchanalia only four months earlier, and bought a decade to a grim conclusion. In December of 1969, an ill-planned free concert featuring Jefferson Airplane and the Rolling Stones was staged in front of 300,000 people at Altamont Speedway in California. Put in charge of security, the Hell's Angels spent much of their time brutalizing attendees. On top of that, bad acid circulated in the crowd, and the audience-reaction shots could be inserted into a George Romero movie without anyone telling the difference. The event reached its tragic end when a Hell's Angel guard stabbed a spectator, an incident replayed before an ashen Mick Jagger in the final scene.

8. The Parallax View (1974)

The Watergate scandal sparked a series of first-rate '70s thrillers, none better than The Parallax View, which hinted at a powerful new strain of disillusionment and paranoia about government's omnipresent reach and sinister intentions. Director Alan J. Pakula would tackle Watergate directly two years later with All The President's Men, but this fiction film allows for a more free-floating expression of conspiratorial dread. Warren Beatty stars as a journalist who pokes into a senator's assassination and soon gets immersed within the shadowy organization that orchestrated the killing. Beatty's infiltration of the group leads to the signature scene, in which he views a recruitment film filled with disturbing associations about American life. But more importantly, the film suggests that citizens no longer have control over their government and are doomed to suffer injustices under its thumb.

9. Do The Right Thing (1989)

Not long after white locals assaulted three African-American teenagers (and killed one) in the Howard Beach section of Queens, Spike Lee registered his disgust with Do The Right Thing, his landmark statement on race relations. The film itself was an historic event, drawing several short-sighted editorials that criticized Lee for inciting black people to riot, as his Right Thing character does. There were no post-screening riots, of course, but the film served as a litmus test for racial views in America, and based on the contradictory quotes from Martin Luther King and Malcolm X that appear when the screen fades to black, any conclusions Lee has to offer are pretty open-ended.

10. 25th Hour (2002)

Hollywood movies shot in New York around 9/11 went out of their way to avoid talking about the elephant in the room; several even digitally removed any footage of the Twin Towers. It was a missed opportunity to capture a moment in time that needed documentation apart from the nauseating replays on CNN. But New York is Spike Lee's town, and in one of those miracles of timing that can lead to great art, he bravely decided to put his broken city front and center in 25th Hour. The opening-credit sequence alone is as beautiful an elegy for 9/11 as anyone could possibly imagine, with Terence Blanchard's score swelling over a slow reveal of the Tribute In Light. A montage of Ground Zero itself comes in later on, but the film more subtly incorporates the tenor of the times into its story of a convicted drug dealer's last day in the city before he heads off to jail. The feelings evoked by his dilemma—of regret, of reckoning, of loss—are impossible to extract from those that haunt his native city.

11. Elephant (2003)

Gus Van Sant's rapturous, terrifying memorial to Columbine was criticized in some corners for moral vacuity and exploitation, because it really didn't add anything to the discussion on high-school violence. Yet it's valuable for that very reason: Rather than speculating about causes or solutions, or otherwise engaging in the facile politicking that followed in Columbine's wake, Van Sant provides a meditative space for viewers to contemplate this event on their own, just as he did with his previous film, Gerry. Elephant does the important service of wresting Columbine away from the pundits and artfully returning to what evolved into a not-so-ordinary day in high-school life. Van Sant doesn't bother with characterization, but he succeeds in simply acknowledging the existence of victims and perpetrators with dignity and without contrivance.


The Onion's AV Club List 3

Inventory: 15 Book-to-film adaptations that live up to the source material

Reviewed by Tasha Robinson
July 19th, 2006

1. The Godfather (1972)

The Godfather

It's rare for a book-to-film adaptation to actually be as good as the original work, let alone better. By the time cinematic conventions, run-time limitations, special-effects budgets, nervous studio types afraid of deviating from formula, and filmmaking teams eager to put their own imprints on a project have all had their way with a story, the things that made it unique have often been leeched out. Possibly the best way to go about making a film that more than lives up to its inspiration: Start with a book that isn't all that great to begin with, like Mario Puzo's pulpy, florid novel The Godfather. Then add evocative direction, iconic performances, and memorable music. People will still read the book, but the film version is the one they'll remember.

2. The Princess Bride (1987)

The Princess Bride

Still, an excellent book can sometimes be adapted well too. William Goldman's novel The Princess Bride is still a little funnier, and a little more expansive, than the film. But he wrote the screenplay himself, preserving all the best bits of business and humor. Robin Wright Penn is a bit stiff as the heroine, but director Rob Reiner recognized that this love story is more about the colorful characters than the romance, and he made them as memorable as they are quotable.

3. Charlotte's Web (1973)

Charlotte's Web

E.B. White's children's classic remains a terrific read, while the animated 1973 adaptation is visually dated and makes the common kids'-movie mistake of packing in songs. But the film preserves the book's story as well as its tender, emotional tone, and even some of the songs are sweetly memorable, with an eye toward fleshing out characters and moving the action along instead of slowing it down. Any bets on whether the 2006 version will hew as close to White's story? Judging from the fart jokes and gibbering in the initial trailer… oy.

4. The Lord Of The Rings trilogy (2001-2003)

Lord Of The Rings

Sticklers will point out the things that writer-director Peter Jackson cut (no Tom Bombadil? Uh, alas?) or made up himself as evidence that his massive film trilogy doesn't quite compare to J.R.R. Tolkien's books, but surely even the most nitpicking fanboys were gaping over the way Jackson filmed the battle of Helm's Deep, or Bilbo's explosive going-away party. Jackson managed a double miracle: He brought out the spectacle of Tolkien's work while keeping in all the politics that made it meaty.

5. Jane Eyre (1944)

Jane Eyre

Jane Eyre is one of those classics that gets remade for every generation, sometimes multiple times, but while there have been more faithful adaptations, none has quite captured the book's spirit like Robert Stevenson's 1944 version, in large part because of Orson Welles. Most filmed versions seem to forget that Jane is supposed to be a plain woman, and her explosive employer Edward Rochester is supposed to be scary and ugly as well as compelling, but Joan Fontaine fits the Jane Eyre bill reasonably well, while Welles could have been born to play the storming, brooding Rochester. Their performances carry the film version more than the elided script does.

6. American Psycho (2000)

American Psycho

Writer-director Mary Harron should be placed atop a pedestal in film classes and looked to for a classic example of how to pare the unnecessary verbiage off a novel and polish up the core until it gleams. Her take on Bret Easton Ellis' blithery gorefest follows its lead for a viciously dark, satiric look at the '80s, but she parts company with Ellis when he wallows in lengthy descriptions of torture and torturous descriptions of '80s pop. She keeps just enough of both for flavor without getting her hands dirty or making her film unbearable, instead of mesmerizing.

7. Jaws (1975)


Another classic case of a pulpy novel turned into a cinematic gem, Peter Benchley's book is dry and simple, with a thoroughly unnecessary extramarital-affair plotline that he ditched for the film version. His spare writing translates brilliantly to film, where it seems economic instead of anemic. Steven Spielberg's savvy in knowing what to show and what to conceal from the audience certainly didn't hurt, either.

8. 25th Hour (2002)

25th Hour

David Benioff's novel 25th Hour is similarly lean, though in his case it's still an excellent read—it just seems like a screenplay in novel form. Still, unusually taut direction from Spike Lee and terrific performances from Edward Norton, Brian Cox, and—well, the whole cast, really, though particularly Anna Paquin—make the film version the better bet.

9. Rashômon (1950)


The two stories that became Rashômon contain much of the basic substance of the film, but director Akira Kurosawa and his frequent star Toshirô Mifune get the credit for giving them the vivid flavor of real events, instead of subdued literary experiments. Which, of course, heightens the "What really happened here?" quality immensely. Mifune is even more over-the-top in this film than usual, but that's part of the fun too.

10. The Silence Of The Lambs (1991)

The Silence Of The Lambs

Another pulpy thriller elevated by terrific performances and a hushed, serious tone that doesn't wallow in the bloody details, The Silence Of The Lambs won a pile of well-deserved Oscars, including the Best Adapted Screenplay award. Too bad the follow-up, Hannibal, wasn't nearly as good—but then, neither was the book it was based on.

11. Fight Club (1999)

Fight Club

Another for the Mary Harron school of adaptation, David Fincher's Fight Club dredges all the plot and resonance from Chuck Palahniuk's book and leaves behind the amateur gimmickry of a young man's first novel: the stylistic tricks and gimmicks and the repetition in particular. Another strong Norton performance and the palpable chemistry between Norton and Brad Pitt livens up the proceeds considerably.

12. The Thin Man (1934)

The Thin Man

Dashiell Hammett's snappy detective novels are still a pleasure, and The Thin Man is no exception, but where it lunges right into the action on page 1, the film adaptation—the first of six Nick-and-Nora detective movies—gives the story a little more room to breathe. Mostly though, W.S. Van Dyke just does a fittingly elegant job of bringing Hammett's book to life, complete with a perfect cast that make his quippy dialogue sparkle.

13. The Iron Giant (1999)

The Iron Giant

Ted Hughes' 1968 children's classic The Iron Man doesn't actually have that much to do with Brad Bird's animated adaptation—for instance, the movie version features a notable shortage of Space-Bat-Angel-Dragons attacking Earth. The book has charmed generations of British youngsters, but Bird's funny, clever, and gently pacifistic take on the story makes it more personal and more resonant, particularly for kids growing up in a heavily armed and hawkish America.

14. The War Of The Worlds (1953)

The War Of The Worlds

H.G. Wells and Jules Verne were both full of brilliant ideas that didn't quite pop off the page, thanks to frequently leaden writing. The 1953 adaptation of Wells' War Of The Worlds compensates by nearly popping off the screen with vivid cinematography and state-of-the-art-at-the-time effects that still look surprisingly eerie today. The movie can be stilted and awkward in places, with all the goofiness of '50s science fiction, but it's still thoroughly enjoyable, in a gawky kind of way.

15. Howards End (1992)

Howard's End

The Merchant/Ivory/Jhabvala team did some terrific work with novel-to-film adaptations (A Room With A View, for instance), though clunkers like The Golden Bowl prove that not all their adaptations were magic. And while The Remains Of The Day was exquisite in its way, it just couldn't live up to Kazuo Ishiguro's fantastic novel, which got inside its protagonist's head in a far more visceral way. But they made cinematic gold with the heartbreaking Howards End, based on E.M. Forster's elegant book. Sometimes the movie and the book it was based on are both truly enjoyable. Too bad it doesn't happen more often.

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